Nothing too serious here. Just poking some fun at some real life super heroes.
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What is the most abundant life in the Universe? That’s a bold question, considering we have yet to see undisputed proof that ET even exists. The only model we have, is on Earth. So let’s unpack that, and see what we end up with.
Earth, 4.6 billion years old. That’s our scale. The scale has already been split into four eons.
The first eon is called Hadean. That first eon, lasted from 4.57 billion to 4.1 billion years ago. At 4.53 billion years, a mars sized object hit the earth, forming the moon. At 4.1 to 3.8, water and organic material begin falling to Earth.
It would be during this eon 4.0-2.8 billion years ago, where life on Earth took a foothold, the Archean eon. They were single celled creatures including microscopic microfossils.
At 3.6 billion years, we can see the emergence of cyanobacteria. These little guys begin to produce oxygen in Earths’ great oxygenation event.
2.5 billion years ago, Earths oxygen level begins to significantly rise.
Notice that Earth is almost half as old as it is now, yet populated with these simple life forms, and there’s nowhere near enough oxygen in the air for animals or humans.
Once the oxygen level starts to rise, multi-celled organisms start showing up. The cells have a protected nucleus, which now house DNA.
At 2 billion years ago, photosynthesis begins to produce more oxygen. Creatures start using oxygen to process fat, sugar, and protein.
At a billion years ago, a super continent forms. Life looks like cool sponges and funky worms. Half a billion years ago, the Cambrian explosion gives rise to more complex animals that evolve and diversify rapidly.
490-445 million years ago, we see the first plants and fungi appear on land, then an Ice age. After this time, jawed fish appear, then more complex plants, increasing oxygen, winged insects.
Then 252 million years ago, the Great Dying event wipes out 95% of life on Earth. Then Dinosaurs take over the planet until Bam, a big rock from the sky wipes them out.
With nothing around to eat plants, plants become trees. Forests become the new modern habitat. With all that food around, mammals start getting bigger and bigger. The first primates appear. Those opposable thumb tree swingers eventually hit the ground That’s when the Earth became the Planet of the Apes
Our sensors are picking up, no wait, we have a visual. Computer, put it on screen. Whoa, that’s new. The image is showing two, not one but two planets in orbit around it’s parent star. It’s not exactly a hi rez image, but it’s enough to be only the second time a multi-planetary system has been captured using direct imaging.
The host star is called PDS 70, located 370 light years away. Its just a baby, only 6 million years old, a bit smaller than our sun, and is still building up steam from its surrounding accretion disk. This is all the stuff in a busy young solar system, that needs to get cleaned up. And that’s exactly what these two planets are doing.
They are big planets, several times bigger than Jupiter. That’s why we can pick them up on visual. As they orbit around the star, they are clearing the debris in their paths.
The inner most planet, PDS 70 b, is the closest to it’s star, 3 billion Km, which is about how far Uranus is from the Sun. Further out is PDS 70 c, closer to 6 billion Km away, like Neptune.
We have images of other fully formed planets, but none like this, not this young.
Podcasting for the first time from our sound studio in CollabSpace, Ottawa, Canada.
Our sensors are picking up a new planet, 920 light years away is orbiting a star in what’s called a 'Neptunian Desert'. This is an area of space so close to a star that if were the size of Neptune with all that beautiful blue super-thick atmosphere, would simply have it all blown away by its parent star.
Enter NGTS-4b, three times bigger than Earth, so close to it’s star, it takes 1.3 days to orbit, atmosphere intact, not possible, forbidden. Beach weather here a 1,000 degrees Celsius on this planet.
How can it exist? One idea is that it’s core is a super heavyweight, with gravity itself keeping a hold on the atmosphere. Whatever the reason for this forbidden planet to exist, it may be stretching what we previously thought were limits of planet formation.
This is also a first from Earth. The transition method used to detect such a small signal, of a forbidden planet. If we can find one, we can find more.
Maybe Neptunian Deserts are wetter than we thought.
This episode of Deep Space Drones was sponsored by
The Great 415ppm CO2 Event
All planets, as far as we know, have atmospheres. We can see alien atmospheres by looking at the light from their own sun passing through them.
When looking for new life, a target atmosphere must be able to protect life on the surface. Although the sun gives life, without the right kind of atmosphere, the Sun's rays can break apart the chemical bonds of life’s essential organic molecules.
An atmosphere also has to be thick enough not to let water evaporate into space. Water boils at a lower temperature in a thinner atmosphere, thus evaporates quicker.
Our atmosphere is like a blanket around the Earth. There has to be enough to help regulate the transfer of heat to and from space. Otherwise it’s more boiling hot days, ice cold nights, and less beach weather.
Of course what’s in the atmosphere matters too. The air on Earth itself wasn’t always as hospitable as it is today. There was a time when bacteria lived in a world with no oxygen in the air, until one day 2.5 billion years ago the cyanobacteria arrived, exhaling oxygen. The new comers were so successful they would kick-start the great oxygenation event, recalculating who and what could live in this world.
Today, we are kick-starting another great event. This time it’s not bacteria though, It’s us making carbon dioxide. How much? We just set another record, 415ppm, and are showing little signs of slowing down. More gasses like Co2 in the air means a warmer planet, more ecological malfunctions, and warmer, expanding, rising water levels.
But, don’t worry, most farmland, industry, and the world’s population live near the ocean. So, if we sit around and don’t do enough, Mother Nature herself is going to clean up this whole mess.
Then Earth will be ready for the next great event.
It’s in our DNA. That’s a big statement.
For life to build itself up, it needs structure which comes from the elements, carbon, oxygen, calcium, everything that we find in stars. But to take all that building material, and turn it into a living, breathing life form, well you’re gonna need instructions.
A, T, C, & G. Every living thing we know of has a set of four letter instructions encoded into it’s DNA, that defines their properties, everything from what species they are, to what skin, eye, or hair colour it’s host will have.
We just had a huge success in building synthetic organisms. The latest last week when US scientists redesigned E coli bacteria. Nothing dangerous. I mean, if going to expect success, don’t go creating a T-Rex, right off the bat.
The new designer life forms are longer, and grow slower than the God made ones, but are nevertheless alive, as far as we can tell.
We are getting better at creating synths faster, and cheaper. Yes, I know, it’s just a bug right now. But when you think about it, we’ve just designed DNA for an Artificial Life Form.
Can we redesign our own naturally selected DNA, and improve the human condition?
In the early 2000s, data about extra solar planets was trickling in at dial-up modem speed.
As of right now May, 2019, we have data on l over 4’000 planets. Exoplanet are detected using a handful of methods. One way, called the transit method, is the best way to find and learn about most of them.
When a planet crosses the path (transits) between us and a star, the amount of light reaching us dips down giving us numbers to calculate our how big that planet is. Some of that light travels through the exoplanet’s atmosphere and reveals information about the distant world.
So what is the information telling us? It’s saying that most stars that we’re analyzing have planets in orbit around them for one. Two, most of our sensors are picking up very large planets, way bigger than Jupiter.
A lot of the smaller planets aren’t picked up by our sensors. Sensor upgrades to detect more small Earth like rocky world are in the works. A kick-ass space telescope to replace Hubble is less than two years away from launch is one of the planned upgrades.
But hey, we’re not going to wait around for everything to be perfect. We have data loaded about alien atmospheres right here, right now. Let’s get to work.
In our continuing quest to discover alien life one question keeps popping up. How will we recognize alien life when we find it?
Life is a word with multiple meanings. We don’t yet have a perfect definition for what life is, but it hasn’t stopped us from trying.
What we have done is define some of life’s main attributes.
1. Life is chemistry based, an ordered network of chemical reactions.
2. Life is also not in equilibrium, it needs a source of energy to organize itself.
3. Life can adapt and self-improve.
4. Life is enclosed in cells.
5. Life molecules work well with water
Life as we know it is built on four types of molecules, proteins, nucleic acids (our DNA), sugars (carbs), and lipids or fat.
We are biased in our definition, especially that last one that needs water. That’s what life on Earth needs. Still, an excellent starting point. This rules out stars, gas clouds in between them, or anywhere too cold or too hot for liquid water to exist.
NASA defines life as a self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution. (OMG, evolution. Hold on to your hat’s folks, this podcast is for the brave and adventurous.
As the knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood grows, we will use these definitions as a guide to help us find signatures of alien life.
Earth, the only planet in the Universe, known to harbour life. And life on Earth has flourished, some say maybe too successfully. If everyone ate like an average American, we would need four Earths. Whew! I’m sure glad we don’t all eat like average Americans.
A Super-Earth is a planet bigger than earth, not as big a Uranus and Neptune. These ice giants are 15 and 17 times more massive. Forget about gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter, they’re even bigger.
No, a super-Earth is somewhere between Earth and Uranus.
AI is being used to analyse previously archived astronomical data, and has discovered something previously undetected, signals from a long time ago, coming from a galaxy far, far away.
In this episode, we explore why aliens are suspected and how they might not have anything to do with it at all.
Buckle up! Coming out of hyperspace now...
Sky Disruption (How to become a Trillionaire)
Yes, you read it right. The sky itself is heading toward disruption.
We are injecting the sky, not just the cloud, but the entire sky, with AI. We are digitizing outer space.
Why is this happening? There’s gold in them thar hills.
Earth's first Trillionaire will be made by disrupting the sky.
Gold Fever. It’s an obsessive drive with seeking gold, and the riches it will bring. This isn’t just limited to gold, but other precious metals and rare Earth minerals.
But why in space, and not here on Earth?
Let the solar system show you the money...
Really? Are we actually considering arming hyper-intelligent systems?
The question should be, how do we stop the development of strong artificial intelligence from becoming weaponized?
Not all AI's are alike. Todays AI's like SIRI, Alexa, Google, and Cortana are essentially wave 2 AI's, our digital assistants.
Wave 3 AI's are expected to be a much higher level of intelligence than our own.
Let's weaponize them, NOT!
Two new pieces of evidence found on Mars point to the existence of past and possible present life.
Original evidence for planet 9 surfaced in 2014. It's existence could explain the odd behaviour of trans-Neptunian objects. So far all efforts to detect this super-Earth have failed.
Music: bensound.com: The Lounge
Google'e announced the creation of a new technology called Duplex, an AI-driven calling system. It's a narrow AI now, focused specifically on making appointments. But does it have real potential, or are we witnessing a smoke and mirror show. Find out in this episode.
Music backdrop: Bensound.com, Better Days, Epic, and Creepy
Hear the launch and details of the SpaceX launch of the NASA TESS Spacecraft. TESS will look at 400 times more sky than the previous Kepler spacecraft. So far 3,800 Exoplanets have been discovered. TESS is expected to discover over 20,000 more.
Why we need 5G
First of all, what is 5G. 5G is the next generation of mobile network that is faster and more reliable. How fast? We don’t know exactly yet, but expect to be over a 1GBps. Most people are saying 10Gb/s. Some people say that it may be able to handle 800Gb/s.
Compared to today’s 4G LTE at 50Mbps its several orders of magnitude faster.
This isn’t something far into the future either. Development is happening now, and is expected to launch wider in 2020, 2 years from now.
The next generation of mobile devices must be capable of using this technology or risk becoming irrelevant. The US, China and South Korea are going to be the first to launch, followed by the UK. China has a slight lead over the US and South Korea thanks to government support and industry momentum.
A decade ago, the US expanded it’s 4G networks faster and further than other country did, and was rewarded. This included a $100 billion boost to the GDP, and an 84% increase in mobile related jobs. Today the the United States mobile industry supports 4.7 million jobs and adds $475 billion to the economy every year.
Being the leader in the sector will lead to jobs, while being at the tail end could see a contraction of the mobile sector for those countries. There is no second chance to be first.
Does this mean your mobile device, you have now, won’t work any more? No, 5G will work with 4G.
5G enabled smart phones will help rejuvenate the sluggish mobile phone market. It’s now growing at a mere 0.2% yearly.
It’s expected that by 2022 600 million 5G units will be sold, representing 31% of the global market. By 2025, it will be the most dominant mobile network.
There are eight criteria to qualify a network as 5G.
1-10 Gbps connections at the end points.
1 millisecond end to end latency
1000x bandwidth per unit area
90% reduction in energy use
up to 10 year battery life for low power devices
5G is going to change how we use our phones, support a wide range of IoT-connected devices, enable faster and more reliable video, and enhance VR and HR experiences.
With 5Gs minimal latency and remote processing power, VR devices like the HTC Vive will be able to be wireless and much lighter, which will make VR more real life-like. Current Wi-Fi and Bluetooth networks put a ceiling on what is currently possible. 5G will allow remoting the horsepower to the cloud. HTC has already released a wireless version, but is on a dedicated network.
AR devices may be the biggest winners here. Mobile platforms like Magic Leap One, designed to go anywhere and project digital objects into the real world would greatly benefit from 5G’s speed. We’ll likely see AR tech implemented smart prescription eyewear. Expect Apple AR glasses, Microsoft’s Hololens, and Google Glass to leverage 5G.
Apple has already signaled that AR is their space by releasing the ARKit.
Another big winner will be self-driving cars. They have evolved from concept of the future to reality. Uber, Waymo, Toyota and Tesla have cars out there already driving themselves.
People are mainly concerned about safety. Will they ever be safe enough to be ready for widespread deployment? The answer is yes.
The first generation will be self-contained, and only able to see what it can see. Future generations of driverless cars will interact with other cars, see hazards beyond thier sensor range, around corners. Smart roads will make them safer and manage traffic more efficiently. Eventually, everything on the road will be talking to everything else.
For this to work we will need extremely low latency. While the cars will exchange small chunks of information, it has to be nearly instantaneously. 5G sub 1 millisecond latency fits the bill.
Today’s 4G networks are fast enough to order an Uber, but it won’t give driverless cars the human-like reflexes they need to prevent accidents from happening.
Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence are all on the edge of major breakthroughs. They just need the data networks to catch up.
5G will connect way more devices than the current power hungry 4G networks, and modules will be less expensive. This will be a big win for the Internet of Things, which are mostly using Wi-Fi and 2G networks today.
Your phone will become a supercomputer with intelligence with a high-bandwidth connection to the world.
This may all sound like hype right now, but it is turning into reality. Verizon and AT&T plan to launch limited 5G services this year, while T-Mobile and Sprint are lining things up for next year.
Those who think this is just a lot of hype may be either missing the big picture or are purposely trying to put competitors to sleep.
This isn’t all going to happen in one shot. There will be some growing pains just like we have today with 4G LTE. One minute you’re streaming video, the next you’re on 3G, ahhh!
The winners will be those who can implement 5G with the fewest drops to 4G.
One question that’s up in the air is cost. Will it cost more? Will there be a premium to use the faster service? Are consumers willing to shell out the extra bucks when 4G streams video just fine? Cell phones don’t currently appear to be big winners, but that may be deceiving. We just haven’t imagined it yet.
For those working on self-driving and other tech that need 5G, keep it going. Its right around the corner. By 2023, there will be a billion 5G connections.
For those who aren’t seeing the big picture, or use case for the technology, remember this.
Each evolution of our global data network has brought incredible advancements to human civilization. It was not to long ago that using a phone to do anything other than making a call was all we could imagine. Today, we can’t imagine getting through the day without our phones to text, shop, connect with friends, order a ride, or google something.
5G will bring more breakthroughs than ever before.
The $600 million Kepler space observatory was launched March 7, 2009 to find Earth sized planets orbiting stars, known as exoplanets. It has been surveying a part of our Milky Way galaxy for planets in or near the habitable zone, where water could exist in liquid form, and be able to support life.
Now, a new way to find previously hidden alien worlds using it's data has been found.
Yes, it's been confirmed, China has partnered with Europe to build a village on the Moon. The European Space Agency (ESA) and and the China National Space Administration (CNSA) are talking about collaborating on a very ambitious project.
And, unlike the International Space Station, the ISS, they plan to open up the Moon Village to the whole world.
China was barred from going to the ISS from US concerns over China's possible military application of its space program thanks to an act of Congress in 2011. No one from NASA may " develop, design, plan, promulgate, implement, or execute a bilateral policy, program, order, or contract of any kind to participate, collaborate, or coordinate bilaterally in any way with China."
Obviously with this policy, the US will not be involved in building this Moon village.
The Moon village could create a launch pad for trips further out into space, to places like Mars, eventually perhaps Saturn's moon Titan. It could become a tourist destination and home base for lunar mining.
The deep space drones podcast has been fun to make, and I, Claude Chateauvert, have learned a lot. But this your podcast, not mine. It’s on your device. It gets copied and redistributed from one site to another, bouncing all over the Internet. It’s open source soundware.
Just about 10 thousand of you are now following Deep Space Drones on Twitter.
It’s time to pivot the podcast, to you.
Tell us about yourself.
Who are you?
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When do you listen to the deep space drones podcast?
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If so, what would you like to say. Keep this context in mind. The deep space drones podcast is about space exploration and disruptive technology.
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For life to exist as we know it, there must be an ocean and a source of energy, no sun required. Deep in the Earth's oceans, where there is no sun, hot vents provide the energy for life.
So, find an ocean, with hot vents, find life, Simple.
So where are these oceans worlds? Find out, in this episode.
Elon Musk Tweeted on Friday, saying he had a good level of confidence that they could reuse the upper stage too by the end of next year to achieve 100% re-usability.
In an unprecedented discovery, scientists have discovered an atmosphere around a planet outside our solar system.
It's called GJ 1132b. GJ is in orbit around a red dwarf star 39 light years away. It's a little bit bigger than Earth, with a radius of 1.4 times more and 1.6 Earth masses.
A new startup is receiving $8 million in funding from investors including Andy Rubin, co-founder of Android and the former head of Google's robotics division.
It's called RightHand Robotics out of Somerville, Massachusetts. Their new robot with it's head in the cloud is called RightPick. They say it can pick up and sort small objects, under five pounds, 500 to 1,000 times an hour. The bot uses machine learning to figure out how to handle various items on the fly.
March was not without incidents for UBER. An UBER driver plowed into a gas pump causing it to explode. A human was driving though.
Last week a self-driving UBER SUV was also involved in an accident. UBER shut down the self-driving program at that point in Arizona, San Francisco and Pittsburgh while investigated the accident.
Google self-driving cars have also been involved in accidents. According to their own accident reports, their self-driving cars were involved in 14 collisions. Out of 14 crashes their test cars were at fault only once, when they dinged the back of a bus at 5 miles per hour.
Still, this technology is getting better every day. This will cause a massive disruption sooner than you might think.
This episode looks at what self-driving cars will be like.